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Diet nursing principle of patients with renal failure

2017-06-13 17:04

First, the protein intake of high quality

Patients with renal failure, need to limit intake of protein, in order to reduce the burden on the kidney, but if you eat less, the consumption of muscle and visceral organs of the body, so must have the right and sufficient "quantity" and "quality" of the protein content should be 1 kg per day to 1.2 grams, intake of animal protein take food, quality and physiological high value such as: milk, eggs, meat. For plant protein in vivo utilization rate is low, the metabolism of more nitrogenous waste, so can not be any food, such as legumes (beans, mung beans, peas, beans, soybeans, soy products (Wan Douren), Dried tofu, tofu, Soybean Milk), gluten products (gluten, gluten, flour intestines). Drupe (melon seeds, peanuts, walnuts, cashews, Su Zi etc.). A vegetarian because of essential amino acids of soybean products and cereals contain enough to improve the vegetarian protein utilization rate, the food must be together collocation edible, can play a complementary effect; it is best to eat cake is appropriate, according to the quantitative protein intake standard.

Two. Take enough calories

In limiting protein intake, in order to avoid the lack of calorie intake, will increase the production of nitrogen waste, can eat more calories and protein very low food to supplement. Vegetable oil (such as soybean, peanut oil), low protein starch (such as: Elizabeth, whiting, lotus root starch,) and sugar (such as sugar, honey, ginger, sugar, fruit sugar), with the production of a variety of delicious snacks, the calorie intake per day per kg of body weight 30 to 40 calories, so as not to lose weight too much.

Three. Be careful of moisture control

When kidney failure and reduce urination, water will accumulate in the body, the cardiovascular system load increases, there will be no vitality, body weight gain, edema, cough, shortness of breath, lie down and hematocrit (Hct) decreased, and the complications of hypertension, heart failure, pericardial inflammation, and dialysis due to dehydration, too much, prone to headache, vomiting, muscle cramps, nausea and other imbalance syndrome. Daily weight gain was less than one kilogram, while drinking water was 500~700 milliliters (ML) of the previous day's total urine volume. If the amount of urine the day before is 500ml, then 500cC + 500 (7D0) ml= 1000 to 1200ml is the amount of water you can drink all day, including boiled water, porridge, milk, soup and drinks. Avoid drinking most of the water, water can gargle, chewing gum or squeeze a bit of lemon juice to reduce the feeling of thirst, as far as possible will be taking time to eat soup, reduce the amount of water.

Four, pay attention to the control of salt

Unable to discharge water, salt can cause renal failure, edema and hypertension. Patients should not eat more than 5 grams of salt a day. 1 grams (1/5 tea soup), salt, =6/5, tea soup, soy sauce, =1 tea, soup, monosodium glutamate, so the above seasoning contains salt, do not arbitrarily add; can use sugar, onions, ginger, garlic and so on to enhance the taste. Patients should also limit the intake of high sodium foods such as processed canned food, salted smoked products, pickled vegetables, pickled vegetables, pickles and instant food. If the appetite is not good, do not need to eat salt, nutrition as the premise, until a good appetite, with adequate nutrition limiting sodium intake.

Five, beware of potassium ion is too high

Because potassium ions can not be discharged by serious damage to the kidney, cause hyperkalemia, may cause finger numbness, fatigue, weakness, chest pain, stiff tongue, difficulty speaking, loss of consciousness, severe arrhythmia or cardiac arrest.

Including the cause of hyperkalemia: 1, 2, no shortage of dialysis; appetite; constipation, 3; 4, a high intake of potassium, high potassium food vegetables, can be peeled and cut into small pieces, with plenty of water for 3 ~ 5 minutes to salvage, then to the oil mix or stir fry; coffee, tea, juice and traditional Chinese medicine containing chicken the potassium content is high, can cause hyperkalemia.

High potassium vegetables: green leafy vegetables (such as spinach, amaranth, spinach, lettuce), mushrooms, seaweed, kelp, carrot, potato.

High potassium fruits: bananas, tomatoes, dates, oranges, oranges, mango, persimmon, muskmelon, grapefruit, Carambola (easy to burp), it is recommended that each with a fruit, weight of about 1/6 is appropriate.

Low potassium fruit: pineapple, papaya, watermelon, water pear, strawberry, lemon and so on, but also should not eat a lot.

Six, to maintain the balance of calcium and phosphorus

Calcium and phosphorus are important minerals in the body, and the two maintain good growth of the bones and teeth and enable the muscles and nerves to function properly. Calcium deficiency, should eat milk, calcium and vitamin D, which can reduce the occurrence of continued hyperparathyroidism. Phosphorus exists in all protein foods, if there is sufficient nutrition, but also reduce the absorption of phosphorus in the body, while eating at the same time please CRUSH aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, taking phosphate binder combined with phosphorus in food. Note: high phosphorus foods and products (whole grains such as brown rice, germinated rice, whole wheat bread), offal (liver, kidney and brain), nuts (peanuts, cashews, walnuts) and butter products (Hua Shengjiang), chocolate, egg yolk, milk, dairy products intake.

Seven, less food "aluminum and purine" food, to avoid aluminum poisoning and gout.

High aluminum diet: 1, 2, 3 tea; cheese; tea; 4, Fagao; 5, in containers made of aluminum cooking.

High purine diet: 1, 2, 3 gravy; lentils; concentrated broth; 4, lean meat, duck; 5, brain; 6, mushroom; 7, internal organs (liver, kidney, heart); 8, sardines; 9, eel; 10, asparagus. 11, chronic nephritis; diet; health care

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